Political Science Reference Guide for Chicago Manual of Style

 

STYLE

 

Abbreviations

See 15.45

Use abbreviations at first occurrence of a term [e.g., fiscal year (FY)].  May use both abbreviation and full term throughout text.

Prioritize “that is,” for “i.e.,” and “for example,” for “e.g.,” (always follow with a comma) (5.202, 6.44)

Spell out full name at first mention

For most abbreviations and acronyms, including personal names, omit the periods (e.g., IRS, JFK, LBJ, NAACP, NLRB) (8.6, 17.278)

In notes, Congresses are “Cong.” and congressional sessions are “sess.” (e.g., 93d Cong., 2d sess.) (17.300)

Electoral College (not EC)

instant runoff voting (not IRV)

members of Congress (not MCs)

DC; Washington, DC (no periods) (15.29, 17.100)

UN (no periods) (8.67)

U.S. (8.67, 8.69)

Use postal abbreviations for states in note and bibliographic references (e.g., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) (15.29, 17.100)

Use postal abbreviations for states of U.S. representatives; use hyphen to separate party and state (e.g., Barry Goldwater (R-AZ), Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R-MA) (15.29, 15.31)

Use “Ibid., page number” when referring to a previous cite not separated by other cited works (lowercase ibid when not starting the sentence). (16.47, 16.48)

vs. (v. for court cases)

Use Republican, not GOP

Space on each side of equal sign ( =) (See examples, 9.11–9.12, 9.21–9.27, 14.2, 14.14–14.18)

 

Capitalization

Upper Case

African American (never hyphenated) (7.90)

Anti-Federalist; Anti-Federalists (always hyphenate) (7.90, 8.71)

Article II, Article I, section 2; Article II of the U.S. Constitution; Article II, section 4 (not italicized) (8.86, 9.32); however, in notes, “U.S. Constitution, art. I, sec. 10, cl. 3.”

Articles of Confederation (not italicized) (8.86)

Bill of Rights (not italicized) (8.86)

Chairman Rep. Emanuel Celler (D-NY) (8.21, 15.31)

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist (8.21)

Chinese Americans (never hyphenated) (7.90)

the Cold War

the College (when used as shorthand for Electoral College, after first and full mention)

Commander in Chief

Constitution (cap. when referring to a country’s constitution, i.e., the U.S. Constitution)

Constitutional Convention; the Convention

Committee on the Judiciary; Judiciary Committee (8.67)

Congress; the United States Congress; U.S. Congress; Congresses; Congress member; the Ninety-ninth Congress; the 111th Congress; the Eleventh Congressional District (8.67, 8.55)

Constitution of the United States; U.S. Constitution; the Constitution (not italicized; may omit “U.S.” after first use) (8.86)

Declaration of Independence (not italicized) (8.86)

Delegate Franklin

Department of Political Science (8.73)

the Depression

DC (Not D.C.), District of Columbia, the District (after first mention)

the East (8.49)

Elector Barbara Lett-Simmons of Washington, DC (8.21, 8.25)

Electoral College; the College (8.67) (always capitalized; not EC)

Electoral Count Act of 1887 (not italicized) (8.86)

Fedayeen

Federalist; Federalists (8.71)

the Federalist Paper, No. 51

Free-Soil Party; Free-Soilers (always hyphenate) (8.71)

General Assembly of Illinois (8.67)

Governor Bush (8.21, 8.25)

House; U.S. House; House of Representatives (8.67)

Inauguration Day

Internet (17.234)

Interstate Compact; Mayflower Compact (not italicized) (8.86) (All capitals at first mention, thereafter, lowercase and no quotes, e.g., the compact, compact legislation, interstate compact) (See C & B, 190)

Justice Antonin Scalia (8.21)

Mayor Richard M. Daley; Mayor Daley (8.25)

Midwest (When area is not specifically located on a map) (8.49)

Mountain zone

Muslim (Moslem used by journalists, Muslim used by scholars and adherents of Islam)

“National Popular Vote Interstate Compact” (All capitals and in quotes at first mention, thereafter, lowercase and no quotes, for instance, the compact, compact legislation, interstate compact) (8.86)

the North (8.49)

Northwest; Northeast (When area is not specifically located on a map) (8.49)

Pacific (When area is not specifically located on a map) (8.49)

Party (capitalize after Republican, etc. or in subsequent references to that party)

President Carter, President Richard M. Nixon (8.21, 8.25) (but do not capitalize presidency, presidential, election of president)

Prime Minister Tony Blair, the British Prime Minister (8.21)

Progressive Era (8.79)

Representative Emanuel Celler (D-NY) (but representatives) (8.25)

Republican

the Revolution; Revolutionary War; War of Independence (8.121)

Senate; United States Senate; U.S. Senate (but senators) (8.67)

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R-MA) (8.25)

September 11 (not 9/11) (8.81)

Social Security

Solid South

the South (8.49)

Speaker of the House; Speaker

Subcommittee on the Constitution; Committee on the Election of President, Vice President and Representatives in Congress (8.67)

Supreme Court; the Court; United States Supreme Court; U.S. Supreme Court (8.68)

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families; TANF (not italicized) (8.86)

Title VII (not italicized) (8.86, 9.32)

Treaty of Versailles (not italicized) (8.86)

Twelfth Amendment; Twenty-second Amendment (not italicized) (7.90, 8.86, 9.32, 9.50–9.53)

United Nations; UN (8.67)

United States; U.S. (United States as noun) (8.67, 8.69)

U.S. (U.S. as adjective) (8.67, 8.69)

Vice President Gore

Vietnam War (8.121)

Voting Rights Act of 1965; the Voting Rights Act (not italicized) (8.86)

War on Poverty

Washington, DC

Web site; Web page; Web-related (7.90)

the West (8.49)

Western (when used politically)

World War II (never hyphenated, not italicized) (7.90)

 

Lower Case

administration; Carter administration (8.25)

a priori (not italicized) (7.54)

assembly; the assembly; the state assembly; the lower house of the legislature (8.67)

chair; chairman; chairmen; Emanuel Celler (D-NY), chair of the Judiciary Committee (8.25)

chief justice; chief justice of the United States; William H. Rehnquist, chief justice of the United States (8.25)

city hall; the city council (8.67, 8.70)

civil rights movement (8.81)

clause; compact clause; due process clause (8.86)

coattails

commissioner, commissioners (8.21)

committee; the committee (8.67)

compact; the compact (8.86)

congressional; congressional members; members of Congress (Do not use “congressman” or “congressmen” (8.67)

congressional district (but not Fifth Congressional District) (8.55)

congressional member, member of Congress (Do not use “Congressman” or “Congressmen”)

coup d’état  (not italicized) (7.62)

de jure (roman, not italics)

détente

due process clause (8.86)

eastern Republicans

easterner (8.49, 8.50)

elector, electors (8.25)

e-mail (not capitalized, always hyphenated) (7.90,  p. 305)

en masse

equal rights amendment; ERA (not italicized) (8.86)

executive branch (8.70)

faithless elector; the faithless elector of 2000, Barbara Lett-Simmons (8.25)

federal; federal government  (8.70)

federalism (8.70, 8.71)

forgo

founder; founders (8.72)

founding; the founding; the founding period (8.78, 8.81)

framer; framers (8.72)

glasnost (means openness, publicity)

governor, the governor, governor of New York; George Bush, governor of Texas; governors (8.21, 8.25)

grassroots (adjective); grass roots (noun)

historian Smith

impeachment (8.86)

information age (8.80)

instant runoff voting (not IRV)

interstate (no hyphenation) (7.90)

intrastate (no hyphenation) (7.90)

in toto

judicial branch (8.70)

justice; justice of the United States; Antonin Scalia, justice of the United States Supreme Court (8.25)

laissez-faire

large-state votes / large-state representatives / large-state senators (hyphenate as adjective) (7.90)

left / right (do not cap for political usage)

legislative branch (8.70)

legislature; the Illinois legislature (8.67)

liberal (do not cap political title)

mayor; Richard M. Daley, the mayor of Chicago (8.25)

member of Congress, congressional member (Do not use “Congressman,” “Congressmen,’ or MC)

member of Parliament (8.25)

midcentury (no hyphenation) (7.90)

mid-twentieth century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: mid-twentieth-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77)

mid-1900s, mid-nineteen hundreds (7.90, 9.37)

midwestern Republicans; midwestern states (8.49, 8.50)

northeast (lowercase when direction) (7.90, 8.49, 8.50)

northeasterner; northerner; northwestern (8.49, 8.50)

north–south alliance

nineties, 1990s (no apostrophe) (9.37)

perestroika (restructuring, reorganization)

political science (8.91)

political scientist Mayhew

politics (treat as singular, that is, “politics develops” not “politics develop”)

president; the president; president of the United States, presidency; presidential election; president-elect (7.90, 8.21, 8.25)

prime facie

prime minister; Tony Blair, the British Prime Minister (8.25)

realist (school of IR theory)

republicanism (8.71)

representative, the representative from New York; Emanuel Celler, representative from New York  (8.25)

right wing (not hyphenated; noun)

section 2 of Article I of the Constitution; Article II, section 4 (not italicized) (8.86, 9.32)

senator; the senator from Massachusetts; Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., senator from Massachusetts (8.25)

short-lived (always hyphenate)

small-state votes / small-state representatives / small-state senators (hyphenate as adjective) (7.90)

southerner (8.49, 8.50)

southern Democrats; southern states

southwest (lowercase when direction) (7.90, 302; 8.49, 8.50)

state; state authority (8.70)

state-by-state (always hyphenate) (8.70)

state-level effort (hyphenate as adjective)

state senate; the upper house of the legislature (8.67)

status quo

twentieth century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: twentieth-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77)

twenty-first century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: twenty-first-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77, 9.36)

two-thirds majority (always hyphenate) (7.90)

vice president; the vice president; vice president of the United States (8.21, 8.25) (lowercase when referring to office, cap when referring to person)

vote-getters

war making (noun) / war-making (adjective)

well-known (always hyphenate)

western (when used geographically)

western Republicans

western states

winner-take-all (always hyphenate) (7.90)

worldwide

 

Court Cases and Decisions

Italicize case name, including the “v.”; do not italicize the volume publication details or year (17.283)

Omit periods from abbreviated names (e.g., NLRB, RAV) (17.278)

Place full citation, which includes the publication information and date, in notes (17.283)

Not needed in bibliography (17.283)

Omit publication information when mentioning case in-text (e.g., Williams v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1968); Williams v. Virginia State Board of Elections; Delaware v. New York)

 

N: Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000)

N: Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964)

N: United States v. Dennis, 183 F. 201 (2d Cir. 1950)

N: United States v. Patterson, 55 F. 605 (1893).

N: Williams v. Virginia State Board of Elections, 288 F. Supp. 622 (E.D. Va., 1968)

 

Dates

See Chicago 5.79, 6.46, 9.33

Month Day, Year is preferred (e.g. March 31, 2009; March 2009) (Use throughout text, notes, and bibliographic entries) (6.46)

midcentury (no hyphenation) (7.90)

mid-twentieth century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: mid-twentieth-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77)

mid-1900s, mid-nineteen hundreds (7.90, 9.37)

nineties, 1990s (no apostrophe) (9.37)

twentieth century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: twentieth-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77)

twenty-first century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: twenty-first-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77, 9.36)

Don’t use ordinals for dates (e.g., use December 5 not December 5th) (9.35)

 

Hyphenation

See Chicago, 5.92–5.93, 6.80–6.82, 7.33–7.45, 7.90, 8.169, 8.170

Note differences and different uses among hyphen, en dash, em dash (6.80–6.96)

For members of Congress, use single-letter party and two-letter postal state abbreviations, hyphenation between party and state designations, closed up, [e.g., Emanuel Celler (D-NY)] (do not use en or em dash) (15.29, 15.31)

Hyphenate compounds when used as adjective, but not when used as noun (e.g., agenda-setting committee, small-state votes)

Hyphenate compounds beginning with anti- if second element is capitalized (e.g., Anti-Federalists)

Don’t hyphenate most words beginning with “co” “non” “re” “pre” (but hyphenate most “post-” words) (7.90, 307–9; see 16.83)

 

African American (not hyphenated; noun & adjective) (7.90)

agenda setting (not hyphenated; noun)

agenda-setting meeting (adjective)

Anti-Federalist; Anti-Federalists (always hyphenate, always capitalized) (7.90, 8.71)

battleground states (not hyphenated)

bill text (not hyphenated)

built-in

city-state (7.90, p. 303)

coauthor (7.90, 307–9; see 16.83)

cooperation (7.90, 307–9; see 16.83)

coordinate (7.90, 307–9; see 16.83)

Commander in Chief (not hyphenated)

cutoff  (not hyphenated)

decision makers (not hyphenated; noun)

decision making (noun)

decision-making (adjective) (7.90, p. 303)

direct election plan (not hyphenated)

districtwide

double-ballot majority system

electoral vote winner (not hyphenated)

electoral vote plan (not hyphenated)

e-mail (not capitalized, always hyphenated) (7.90,  p. 305)

end-run

extra-constitutional

face-off (hyphenated)

first-past-the-post

first round (noun)

first-place votes (hyphenated)

first-round election (adjective)

first-round plurality winner

follow-up (both noun and adjective)

forgo (not hyphenated)

four-year term (always hyphenate)

fringe-party candidate (not hyphenated)

frontrunner

Free-Soil Party; Free-Soilers (always hyphenate) (8.71)

frontrunner

grassroots (not hyphenated; adjective)

grass roots (not hyphenated; noun)

home rule (noun), home-rule governance (adjective) (7.90, p. 303)

interstate (not hyphenated) (7.90)

intrastate (not hyphenated) (7.90)

interfaith (7.90, p. 307)

interorganizational (7.90, p. 307)

interparty

intra-arterial (7.90, p. 307)

intrazonal (7.90, p. 307)

instant runoff voting (not IRV) (not hyphenated)

laissez-faire

large state

large-state votes / representatives (hyphenated as adjective) (7.90)

lawmaker, lawmaking

least favored state; nation (not hyphenated) (7.90, 302)

long-run (dictionary)

long-term

low-income (adjective)

make-up of the Senate

major-party candidate

majority vote winner (not hyphenated)

midcentury (no hyphenation) (7.90)

middle-class family

middle-sized states (not mid-size) (dictionary)

mid-January

mid-twentieth century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: mid-twentieth-century proposals) (7.90, 8.77)

mid-1900s, mid-nineteen hundreds (7.90, 9.37)

midterm elections (dictionary)

midwestern states

minority vote winner; minority vote plan (not hyphenated)

minor-party candidate

most favored state; nation (not hyphenated) (7.90, 302)

multi-candidate race

national electoral vote (not hyphenated; noun and adjective)

national popular vote (not hyphenated; noun and adjective)

nationwide

near-majority

near-misses

nonconstitutional, nonparticipation, nonreelection, noncompetitive, nonvoters, nonpartisan, nonideological

one-person, one-vote (hyphenate as adjective)

ongoing

payoff

peacekeeping (not hyphenated; noun and adjective)

policymaker (not hyphenated) (7.90, p. 303)

policymaking (not hyphenated) (7.90, p. 303)

popular plurality (not hyphenated)

popular vote winner (not hyphenated)

popular vote plan (not hyphenated)

popular vote system (not hyphenated)

post-Cold War, post-election, post-reform, post-totalitarian, post-war

pre-2000

preelection, preexisting, predate

rank-order

reelection

right wing (not hyphenated; noun)

right-wing (adjective)

rollback (not hyphenated; noun)

roll back (not hyphenated; verb)

rulemaking (not hyphenated; noun and adjective)

runner-up (7.90, 304; dictionary)

runningmate

runoff (not hyphenated) (7.90)

run up

second-place vote

second round (not hyphenated as noun)

second-round runoff

separation of powers (not hyphenated)

short-term

six-year term (always hyphenate)

small state

small-state votes; small-state representatives (hyphenate as adjective) (7.90, 302)

small-state senators (hyphenate as adjective) (7.90, 302)

southern states

speechmaking (not hyphenated; noun and adjective)

spin-off

state-by-state (always hyphenate) (8.70)

statewide (not hyphenated)

straightforward (not hyphenated)

socioeconomic

superpower

supra-majorities

top-ranked candidates

thereafter (not hyphenated)

third-party candidate (always hyphenate)

three-fourths of state legislatures

tradeoff (noun or adjective) (7.90, 304; dict, 150)

turnout (not hyphenated)

two-party system (always hyphenate)

two-round majority system

two-term presidency

two-thirds majority

two-year term (always hyphenate)

twenty-first century (always spell out; hyphenate as adjective: twenty-first-century proposals, twenty-first-century reform movements) (7.90, 8.77, 9.36)

two-thirds majority (always hyphenate) (7.90)

under-representation

vice-presidential candidate

vis-à-vis

vote-getter, vote-getters

vote share (not hyphenated)

war making (not hyphenated; noun)

war-making (adjective)

Web site; Web page; Web-related (7.90)

widespread

winner-take-all (always hyphenate) (7.90)

World War II (never hyphenated, not italicized) (7.90)

worldwide (not hyphenated)

 

Names and Titles

Use the full name of an individual at first mentioning (8.21)

Capitalize a title when immediately preceding a specific personal name (e.g. President Bush) (8.21)

Lowercase a title when referring to the office itself or when following a name (e.g., the presidency of George W. Bush; George W. Bush did not prioritize electoral reform as president) (8.21)

It is not necessary to repeat the title after its initial use (8.21)

Use spaces in between initials in personal names (e.g., E. E. Schattschneider, W. E. B. DuBois) (8.6, 8.7)

Omit periods when initials are used alone (e.g., LBJ, JFK) (8.6)

Omit Mr. Mrs. Dr. (15.20)

For members of Congress, use single-letter party and two-letter postal state abbreviations, hyphenation between party and state designations, closed up, [e.g., Rep. Emanuel Celler (D-NY)] (do not use en or em dash) (15.29, 15.31)

May use “Rep.” and “Sen.” (except if “the” precedes title; e.g., “the Honorable …”) (8.25, 15.13, 15.18)

No commas surround suffixes Jr., II, III, 2d, 4th; including in note references (6.49, 9.47, 15.19) (except in Bibliography and Index; e.g., Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. … (17.79 18.41)

 

Possessives (5.25, 7.17–7.30)

Adams’s

citizens’ votes

Congress’s

Kansas’s

Marx’s theory

politics’ true meaning

senators’ votes

the Lincolns’ house

United States’

the United States’ presence

William’s

 

 

Punctuation and Grammar

No one-sentence paragraphs

Include comma before the final “and” or “or” in lists

Use quotation marks to emphasize special meaning, or new words only at first use.

Extensive use of quotation marks should be eliminated.

Hyphenation

Do not hyphenate terms that connote ethnic or national affiliation (e.g. Asian American).

May hyphenate if second word starts with same letter (anti-inflationary) or hyphen aids in comprehension, but not if word is not hyphenated in Webster’s (e.g. reelect).

Hyphenate constructions such as “then-Turkish Prime Minister Turgut Özal.”

Technical jargon (e.g. factor loading, regression) should be defined and used limitedly.

Colloquial language can generally remain.

Keep contractions to a minimum (e.g., “can’t,” wouldn’t,” etc.).

 

Word Usage

See Chicago 5.202

and – It is fine to begin a sentence with the conjunction “and” (5.202, p. 200).

and/or – Avoid usage; instead try “____ or ___ or both” (5.202, p. 200)

but  – It is fine to begin a sentence with the conjunction “but” (5.202, p. 204).

etc. – Never use in reference to people; only use when list is truly inexhaustible; do not use “and, etc.”; do not use at end of list that begins with “for example,” or “e.g.,” (5.202, p. 214).

e.g.; i.e. – Prioritize “that is,” for “i.e.,” and “for example,” for “e.g.,” (always follow with a comma) (5.202, p. 218; also see 6.44)

its; it’s – “Its” is possessive; “it’s” is contraction of “it is” (5.202, p. 220).

may; might – “May” expresses what is possible, factual; “might” suggest something that is uncertain, hypothetical (5.202, p. 221).

on; upon – Prioritize “on” to “upon” (Place the book on the shelf.”); use “upon” when introducing an event or condition (“You will get paid upon completion of the job.”)  (5.202, p. 223).

 

SOURCES

 

Citation of Source

Place references to sources used in paper in notes, preferably footnotes (16.3)

Place all works that you used as sources as well as other works that you recommend to the reader in the Bibliography

Prefer notes to in-text citations (16.3)

Use endnotes or footnotes, preferably the latter (never use both in the same paper)

Use Microsoft© Word’s insert note function

Do not use Microsoft© Word’s bibliography function

Do not insert a note at the end of the title or any heading (16.32)

Insert note numbers only at the end of sentences (16.30)

In-text note numbers are superscript (16.25)

Notes may be smaller font size than text

In notes, numbers are normal sized, not superscript (16.25)

No period after note number in notes

For initial citation in notes, provide full information in notes (16.3) (see examples below)

For subsequent citation, use author last name, title of work (may be shortened), page number(s) if any (16.41–16.45)

For a note reference, separate elements with commas; for bibliography, separate elements with periods (16.15)

For note citations with two or more authors, list alphabetically and do not separate names with commas. However, use commas between names for bibliographic entries (16.11).

Use “headline” capitalization for titles (8.167, 16.17)

Do not use pages, p., or pp. in notes; numbers alone are sufficient (16.10, 16.13, 17.133, 17.168)

If referencing a note, use the abbreviation “n.” (e.g., “See chap. 1, n. 4.”) (16.43)

Use “ed.” when referring to edition or editor, “rev. ed.” for revised edition; place any number of “vols.” after edition information (17.79)

Use “chap.” when referring to entire chapter and “vol.” “vols.” for volume(s) (16.13, 17.79, 17.83–89, 17.132, 17.134)

Always give volume numbers in Arabic (e.g., vol. 5), even if in Roman (e.g., vol. V) in original (17.83); unless it is part of original title, e.g., Congress and the Nation Volume III

For ordinals in note references for editions, use 2d ed., 3d ed., 4th ed. (17.79)

Inclusive page ranges are abbreviated when 101–199, 201–299, etc., but not 1–99 or when starting with multiples of 100 (e.g., 96–117, 100–106, 100–145, 1100–1113, 101–8, 1103–4, 153–67, 321–28, 1496–1506) (see Chicago, 9.64, 17.129–131, 17.168)

No “and” between separate page ranges

For notes, unless referring to an entire book or article, provide specific page number(s) of information cited (when referring to an entire article, include inclusive page range); for bibliography, provide inclusive page ranges for articles, but not for books (16.13, 17.68, 17.69).

Use two-letter postal abbreviations for publication information (17.100)

Retain “Books” and “Press” if part of publisher’s formal name (17.100, 17.104)

Omit “Publishing” and “Publisher” (17.104)

Omit “The” if part of publisher’s formal name (17.104)

Omit “Co.,” “Inc.,” “Ltd.,” “Corp.” (17.104)

Use ampersand (&) in publisher’s title (17.106)

Use “Cited by …” (not “Quoted by …”)

When deemed necessary, use “See …” or “See, for example, …” “For further information, see…” “Also see …” (16.58)

For bibliography, do not use tabs for indentation; instead, use “hanging indentation” under the “paragraph” function

For publisher names with a “/” put a space on both sides of the backslash (17.110–11)

For older publications date, in notes, put before publisher city within the parentheses (1985; Chicago: …); in bibliography, put before publisher city preceded and followed by periods (17.123–27) (See MacBride sample citation below)

 

Citations, Previous

For note references to a work you have already cited and separated by citations to other works, use “last name of author, short title, and page number (no page number(s) if referring to entire book)” (16.41–16.45)

Use “Ibid., page number” when reefing to previous cite not separated by other cited works. (16.47, 16.48)

Use “See note 4 above.” sparingly, namely if referring to specific content within a previous note, not only previously cited works (16.33)

Do not use “idem,” “id.,” “op. cit.,” or “loc. cit.” (16.49, 16.50)

 

N: Edwards, Why the Electoral College is Bad for America, 127.

N: Sharpe, “Post Vietnam,” 546.

N: Ibid., 550.

N: Koza et al., Every Vote Equal, 36. (16.44)

 

Citations, Multiple

For multiple citations within one note, separate with semicolons and list according to text material; precede last source with “and” (16.37, 16.51)

 

Citations with Commentary and Quotations

See Chicago 16.52–56

For quotes within notes, source generally follows after terminal punctuation (16.53); e.g., Roger Sherman desired appointment of the president by Congress, “making him absolutely dependent on that body, as it was the will of that which was to be executed.” Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, 536.

      e.g., This is a play on Hamilton’s discussion of the Electoral College in “Federalist Paper, No. 68,” in The Federalist, ed. Henry Cabot Lodge, (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1888), 423–24. The fuller quote will be examined below.

Brief parenthetical page references are appropriate in reference to previous full citations (16.54). e.g., Hardaway notably quotes James Madison recounting that the “little states insisted on retaining their equality in both branches,” strongly implying the influence of federalism in the creation of the Electoral College (84).

 

Quotations

Do not start a quoted sentence with a capital letter when the quote is part of your own sentence (11.16)

Indicate a change in original capitalization with brackets (11.19, 11.63)

Must be exact reproduction of original, including punctuation, spelling, and symbols

Quotations of less than fifty words or four lines are in text with quotes

Quotations with more than fifty words or four lines are set as a separate (indented) paragraph without quotes

[sic] – italicize (6.78, 7.56, 11.69)

Space on each side of ellipses “ … ” (11.57)

No ellipse before or after a quote (11.51, 11.65)

Comma or other punctuation in original may precede or follow ellipse “, … ” (11.51, 11.58)

 

SAMPLE CITATIONS (N: Notes; B: Bibliography)

 

No author

Use article or book title when no author is given (17.32, 17.154)

For web citations, use corporate author (17.237)

 

Three or more authors

In note, list first author followed by et al. with no intervening comma (include the period after et al) (17.29, 17.279)

In bibliography, list all authors

 

N: John R. Koza et al., Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote (Los Altos, CA: National Popular Vote Press, 2006).

N (subsequent): Koza et al., Every Vote Equal, 36. (16.44)

B: Koza, John R., Barry Fadem, Mark Grueskin, Michael S. Mandell, Robert Richie, and Joseph F. Zimmerman. Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote. Los Altos, CA: National Popular Vote Press, 2006.

 

Books

See Chicago, 16.10

No page numbers when referring to entire book (16.13)

Use “chap.” when referring to entire chapter and “vol.” for volume (16.13, 17.132, 17.134)

For ordinals in note references for editions, use 2d ed., 3d ed., 4th ed., and rev. ed.  (17.79)

Place year at the very end of bibliography citation

In bibliography, period before and after 2d ed. 4th ed. (see 17.27, 17.79)

For older publications date, in notes, put before publisher city within the parentheses (1985; Chicago: …); in bibliography, put before publisher city preceded and followed by periods (17.123–27) (See MacBride sample citation below)

Use “eds.” only if starting cite with two or more editors (17.88)

 

N: Robert W. Bennett, Taming the Electoral College (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006), 163.

B: Bennett, Robert W. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

 

N: V. O. Key Jr., Politics, Parties, & Pressure Groups, 5th ed. (New York: Thomas W. Cromwell, 1964).

B: Key, V. O., Jr. Politics, Parties, & Pressure Groups. 5th ed. New York: Thomas W. Cromwell, 1964.

 

N: Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

B: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

 

N: Lawrence D. Longley and Alan G. Braun, The Politics of Electoral College Reform (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972), 132.

B: Longley, Lawrence D., and Alan G. Braun. The Politics of Electoral College Reform New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972.

 

N: Roger Lea MacBride, The American Electoral College (1953; Calwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1963), 32–33.

B: MacBride, Roger Lea. The American Electoral College. 1953. Calwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1963.

 

N: David R. Mayhew, Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), chap. 4.

B: Mayhew, David R. Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

 

N: Paul D. Schumaker and Burdett A. Loomis, eds., Choosing a President: The Electoral College and Beyond (New York: Chatham House, 2002).

B: Schumaker, Paul D., and Burdett A. Loomis, eds. Choosing a President: The Electoral College and Beyond. New York: Chatham House, 2002.

 

Books, Reference

No entry or article titles (makes subsequent citations difficult to lineup otherwise) 17.238

(17.85 re: vol.; 17.238)

 

N: Congressional Quarterly Almanac 1950, vol. 6 (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1950), 560–61;

N (subsequent): Congressional Quarterly Almanac 1950, 560–61.

B: Congressional Quarterly Almanac 1950, vol. 6. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1950.

 

N: Congress and the Nation 1945–1964 (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1973), 1522–23, 51a.

N (subsequent): Congress and the Nation 1945–1964, 1522–23, 54a–55a.

B: Congress and the Nation 1945–1964. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1973.

 

N: Congress and the Nation Volume XI 2001–2004 (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2006), 1002.

B: Congress and the Nation Volume XI 2001–2004. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2006.

 

N: Duane Nystrom, ed., Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774–1989 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989).

B: Nystrom, Duane ed. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774–1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.

 

N: Library of Congress, Digest of Public General Bills and Resolutions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1936–1986).

B: Library of Congress. Digest of Public General Bills and Resolutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 19361986.

 

Chapter in Multiauthor (Edited) Book

In notes, for chapter from an edited book, place elements in this order: author, chapter title in quotes, “in,” book title in italics, “ed.” editor’s name, publication information and date in parentheses, and page range (if available) (the book title always comes before editor) (17.68)

No comma after “in” (17.68)

Use “ed.” (17.68, 17.79)

Do use “edited by” (17.68)

In notes, comma between editor name and 3d ed., rev. ed., vol. 2., Norton Critical Editions., Bollingen Series. (17.31, 17.79, 17.84, 17.85, 17.123, 17.129)

In bibliography, period between editor name and 2d ed., Rev. ed., Vol. 1., 3d ed. 2 vols., (17.27, 17.79, 17.84, 17.86, 17.110)

No need for page range numbers of a book chapter in notes or bibliography (17.135); but they are usually given in bibliography; in bibliography, inclusive page range comes after editor name and a comma, followed by a period, and before publisher city (17.69, 17.135)

For Notes, do not put in chapter page range.

If available; “vol. 2, chap. 6.” (17.87, 17.129)

 

N: Gary E. Bugh, “The Challenge of Contemporary Electoral College Reform,” in Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities, ed. Gary Bugh. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishers, 2010).

N (subsequent): Bugh, “The Challenge of Contemporary Electoral College Reform.”

N (different chapter in same previously cited book): Burdett A. Loomis, “Pipe Dream or Possibility? Amending the U.S. Constitution to Achieve Electoral Reform,” in Bugh, Electoral College Reform, 223–34.

B: Bugh, Gary E. “The Challenge of Contemporary Electoral College Reform.” In Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities, ed. Gary Bugh, 77–93. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishers, 2010.

 

N: Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell, “Introduction to Electoral Systems,” in The Politics of Electoral Systems, ed. Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell (New York: Oxford University, 2008).

B: Gallagher, Michael, and Paul Mitchell. “Introduction to Electoral Systems.” In The Politics of Electoral Systems, ed. Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell, 1–23. New York: Oxford University, 2008.

 

N: Benjamin Ginsberg, “Money and Power: The New Political Economy of American Elections,” in The Political Economy, ed. Thomas Ferguson and Joel Rogers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1984).

B: Ginsberg, Benjamin. “Money and Power: The New Political Economy of American Elections.” In The Political Economy, ed. Thomas Ferguson and Joel Rogers, 163–79. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1984.

 

Congressional Committee Hearings and Reports

16.105 (620), 17.293, 17.306–17.308

Omit “U.S. Congress” (17.302, 17.303)

 

N: Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments, Election of President and Vice President, 81st Cong., 1st sess., February 23, March 9, April 14 and 21, May 3, 1949, 3.

B: Senate. Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments. Election of President and Vice President. 81st Cong., 1st sess., February 23, March 9, April 14 and 21, May 3, 1949.

 

N: Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments, Electing the President, 91st Cong., 1st sess., January 23 and 24, March 10–13, 20–21, April 30, and May 1 and 2, 1969, 5, 236, 247.

N (subsequent): Senate, Electing the President, 233.

B: Senate. Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments. Electing the President. 91st Cong., 1st sess., January 23 and 24, March 10–13, 20–21, April 30, and May 1 and 2, 1969.

 

N: Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Direct Popular Election of the President: Report together with Individual, Separate and Minority Views, No. 91-1123, 91st Cong., 2d sess., August 14, 1970, 9, 11.

B: Senate. Committee of the Judiciary. Direct Popular Election of the President: Report together with Individual, Separate and Minority Views, No. 91-1123. 91st Cong., 2d sess., August 14, 1970.

 

Congressional Records

Congressional Record (17.302–03, 17.309)

Reference permanent edition if possible (17.302)

Use comma before page

Omit “U.S. Congress” (17.302, 17.303)

 

For specific page or page range:

N: Congressional Record, 78th Cong., 1st Sess. (1943), 3353.

B: Congressional Record. 78th Cong., 1st Sess. 1943. Washington, DC.

 

N: Annals of Congress, 13th Cong., 1st sess. (1814), 832.

B: Annals of Congress, 13th Cong., 1st sess. 1814. Washington, DC.

 

For range of years:

N: Annals of Congress, 1st Cong., 1st sess.–18th Cong., 1st sess. (1789–1824).

B: Annals of Congress. 42 vols. Washington, DC, 1834–1873.

 

N: Register of Debates, 18th Cong., 2d sess.–25th Cong., 1st sess. (1824–1837).

B: Register of Debates. Washington, DC, 1824–1837.

 

N: Congressional Globe, 23d Cong., 1st sess.–42d Cong., 3d sess. (1833–1873).

B: Congressional Globe. 46 vols. Washington, DC, 1834–1873.

 

N: Congressional Record, 43d Cong., 1st sess.–110th Cong., 2d Sess. (1873–2008).

B: Congressional Record. 1873–2008. Washington, DC.

 

Federalist Papers

In text: As Alexander Hamilton observed in The Federalist Papers,…

 

N: Alexander Hamilton, “Federalist, No 68,” in The Federalist, ed. George W. Carey and James McClellan (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2001), 351–52.

B: Carey, George, and James McClellan, eds. The Federalist. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2001.

 

N: Alexander Hamilton, “Federalist Paper No. 68,” in The Federalist Papers: Hamilton, Madison, Jay, ed. Clinton Rossiter (New York: Mentor, 1961), 412.

N (subsequent): Hamilton, “Federalist Paper, No. 68,” in Rossiter, Federalist Papers, 412.

B: Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist Papers: Hamilton, Madison, Jay. New York: Mentor, 1961.

 

Notes with text:

N: Madison made this argument most famously in Federalist Paper, No. 10. See The Federalist, ed. George Carey and James McClellan (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2001), 43–48.

N: The framers mentioned a few interesting points in this regard. In Federalist Paper, No. 50, James Madison suggested that if popular elections were used to choose the president, “The executive power might be in the hands of a peculiar favorite of the people.” In Federalist Paper, No. 64, John Jay suggests that average voters would be “liable to be deceived by those brilliant appearances of genius and patriotism which, like transient meteors, sometimes mislead as well as dazzle.”

 

Journal Articles

See Chicago, 16.10, 17.154–179

Journal articles, versus magazine articles, are available mainly by subscription and cited by volume and date (17.150)

Include the volume number (month or season, and year) (17. 161)

Use issue number or month or both (17.161)

Must have: (year) in parentheses (17.161)

For notes, include specific page of references information if necessary, otherwise, provide complete page range of the article; for bibliographic references, provide entire page range.

No author: begin with title (17.154, 17.32)

Subsequent references, same chapter: Last name, shortened title, page # (17.179)

 

N: James C. Garand and T. Wayne Parent, “Representation, Swing, and Bias in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1872–1988,” American Journal of Political Science 35, no. 4 (November 1991): 1011–31.

B: Garand, James C., and T. Wayne Parent. “Representation, Swing, and Bias in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1872–1988.” American Journal of Political Science 35, no. 4 (November 1991), 1011–31.

 

N: Scott C. James, “Building a Democratic Majority: The Progressive Vote and the Federal Trade Commission,” Studies in American Political Development 9 (1995): 331–85.

B: James, Scott C. “Building a Democratic Majority: The Progressive Vote and the Federal Trade Commission.” Studies in American Political Development 9 (1995): 331–85.

 

N: Kenneth E. Sharpe, “The Post-Vietnam Formula under Siege: The Imperial Presidency and Central America,” Political Science Quarterly 102, no. 4 (Winter 1987–1988): 549–69.

B: Sharpe, Kenneth E. “The Post-Vietnam Formula under Siege: The Imperial Presidency and Central America.” Political Science Quarterly 102, no. 4 (Winter 1987–1988): 549–69.

 

N: James W. Ceaser, “The Presidential Nomination Mess,” Claremont Review of Books 8, no. 4 (Fall 2008): 21–25, http://www.claremont.org/publications/crb/id.1571/article_detail.asp.

B: Ceaser, James W. “The Presidential Nomination Mess.” Claremont Review of Books 8, no. 4 (Fall 2008): 21–25. http://www.claremont.org/publications/crb/id.1571/article_detail.asp.

 

Magazine Articles

17.150, 17.151, 17.182–17.187

Magazine articles, versus journal articles, are weekly or monthly, available by subscription or newsstand, more accessible general reader (17.150)

Cited by date alone (no volume) (17.150)

No comma between month and year (17.183, 17.185, 17.192)

Date is not in parentheses (17.166, 17.183)

When in doubt, use journal citation format (17.151)

Specific page number may be used in note (17.183).

No inclusive page numbers needed for bibliography citations since material in magazine may be separated by other material (17.183).

No author: begin with title (17.154, 17.32)

Comma after magazine title in both notes and bibliography

Subsequent references, same chapter: Last name, shortened title, page # (17.179)

Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report: CQ Log for Editors (Congressional Quarterly), 1947 (v. 1) – 1950 (v. 8); CQ Weekly Report, 1951 (v. 9) – 1955 (v. 13); Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 1956 (v. 14, n. 1) – 1997 (v. 55); CQ Weekly, 1998 (v. 56) – present.

 

N: “Electoral College: Anachronism or Bulwark of Democracy?” Congressional Digest, January 2001, 1.

B: “Electoral College: Anachronism or Bulwark of Democracy?” Congressional Digest, January 2001.

 

N: Ben Wildavsky, “School of Hard Knocks: The Electoral College: An Anachronism or Protector of Small States,” U.S. News & World Report, November 20, 2000, 52, http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/001120/archive_009647.htm.

B: Wildavsky, Ben. “School of Hard Knocks: The Electoral College: An Anachronism or Protector of Small States.” U.S. News & World Report, November 20, 2000. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/001120/archive_009647.htm.

 

N: “Electoral College Reform,” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, January 31, 1969, 184.

B: “Electoral College Reform.” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, January 31, 1969.

 

N: Garrett Epps, “The Founders’ Great Mistake,” The Atlantic, January–February 2009, 68–73, http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200901/founders-mistake.

B: Epps, Garrett. “The Founders’ Great Mistake.” The Atlantic, January–February 2009. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200901/founders-mistake.

 

N: “House Votes for Direct Election of President,” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, September 19, 1969, 1715.

B: “House Votes for Direct Election of President.” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, September 19, 1969.

 

Newspaper Articles & Editorials

Author name if available (17.188)

If no author name, use newspaper or corporate author (17.192)

No page numbers (17.188)

Need month day, year (17.188), but, If there is no day, then no comma between month and year, (17.183, 17.185, 17.192)

Add URL if available (17.198)

Not needed in bibliography

Subsequent citation in same chapter: author, short title

 

N: Associated Press, “Hillary Calls for End to Electoral College,” CBS News, November 20, 2000, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/11/10/politics/printable248645.shtml.

N: Portland Press Herald, “Electoral Law Change Decision is Due Today,” March 25, 1969.

N (subsequent): Portland Press Herald, “Electoral Law Change.”

N: United Press International, “Maine Electoral College Law is Unique in Nation,” Portland Evening Express, March 26, 1969.

N: David Damron, “Campaign 2000 Redux: A Landslide of Books Looks at the Election Deadlock,” Orlando Sentinel, December 9, 2001.

N: John Harwood, “Fixing the System: Lessons from States Hold Hope for Reform,” Wall Street Journal, December 22, 2000.

N: Paul Hammell, “Senators Move Electoral Bill,” Omaha World-Herald, February 28, 1995.

N: Mara Liasson, “Group Works to Weaken Electoral College Process,” National Public Radio, December 15, 2008, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=98293164.

N: Editorial, “Splitting State’s Electoral Votes a Matter of Election Fairness,” Journal Star (Lincoln, NE), March 10, 1997.

N: Editorial, Philadelphia Inquirer, July 30, 1990.

 

Legal: Constitution

For note citations to U.S. and state constitutions, spell out “Constitution” and state names (17.321)

Not needed in bibliography (17.276, 17.294)

Use roman numerals for Articles (Article III, Article IV, art. IV) (8.86)

In text, spell out and capitalize amendments “Twenty-second Amendment,” Fourteenth Amendment” (8.86, 17.289)

Do not capitalize second part of hyphenated number if part of a name (e.g., Twenty-second Amendment; Ninety-ninth Congress) (9.50–9.53)

In text, spell out constitutional articles and sections and put in lower case, “article II, section 1” (8.86, 9.32, 17.288)

In text, capitalize “Article” (8.86, 17.289) but not “section”

In notes, use abbreviated and lower-cased “amend.” “art.” “cl.” (17.289, 17.321)

In notes, use “sec.”; do not use the symbol “§” (or other legal symbols) (17.289, 17.321)

 

N: U.S. Constitution, art. II, sec. 1, cl. 3.

N: U.S. Constitution, amend. 14, sec. 2.

N: Arizona Constitution, art. IV, sec. 7.

 

Legal: Court Cases

Chicago, 17.283–87

Italicize case name, including the “v.”; do not italicize the volume publication details or year (17.283)

Omit periods from abbreviated names (e.g., NLRB) (17.278)

Place full citation, which includes the publication information and date, in notes (17.283)

Not needed in bibliography (17.276, 17.283, 17.294)

Omit publication information when mentioning case in-text (e.g., Williams v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1968); Williams v. Virginia State Board of Elections; Delaware v. New York)

 

U.S. Supreme Court Decisions:

N: Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000)

N (subsequent): Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98

N: Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964)

 

Lower Federal Court Decisions:

N: United States v. Dennis, 183 F. 201 (2d Cir. 1950)

N: United States v. Patterson, 55 F. 605 (1893).

N: Williams v. Virginia State Board of Elections, 288 F. Supp. 622 (E.D. Va., 1968)

 

Legal: Legislation, Acts, Bills, Resolutions (proposed) (17.309, also see 17.302)

Not needed in bibliography (17.276, 17.294)

Exclude “U.S.”; “U.S. Congress” from the beginning of the citation (17.302, 17.304)

If used in a bibliography, begin citation with “House” or “Senate” (drop “U.S.”; “U.S. Congress”) (17.309)

In-text, abbreviate bills or resolutions as HR, S, S Res.; Joint Resolutions as SJ Res. HJ Res. (17.309)

 

N (In general, if multiple sources were used, or just the bill text): SJ Res. 33, 77th Cong., 1st sess. (January 31, 1941).

N (If referencing Congressional Record entry): SJ Res. 33, 77th Cong., 1st sess. (January 31, 1941), Congressional Record, 1941, Vol. 87, index: 157, 760; pt. 15: 438–41.

 

Legal: Legislation, Acts, Laws, Statutes (already passed into law) (17.310)

Not needed in bibliography (17.276, 17.294)

 

N: Children’s Internet Protection Act, Public Law 106-554, U.S. Statutes at Large 118 (2001): 64.

N: Help America Vote Act of 2002, Public Law 107-252, U.S. Statutes at Large 116 (2002): 1666.

N: Telecommunications Act of 1996, Public Law 104-104, U.S. Statutes at Large 110 (1996): 56.

 

Manuscript Records

17.222–17.233

 

N: Personal and Political Papers of Barry M. Goldwater. Series III, Legislative Files, “Legislative, Bills Sponsored and Cosponsored: Election of the President and Vice President S. J. Res. 12, 1969, 1970–1971,” 91st Congress, Unprocessed Collection, Arizona Historical Foundation, Tempe, Arizona.

B: Goldwater, Barry M. Personal and Political Papers. Unprocessed Collection. Arizona Historical Foundation, Tempe, Arizona.

 

N: Karl E. Mundt Papers, RG III Legislation, Cart 110, Box 602, Karl E. Mundt Archival Library, Dakota State University, Madison, South Dakota.

N (subsequent): Mundt Papers, RG III Legislation, Cart 110, Box 602.

B: Mundt, Karl E. Papers. Papers. Karl E. Mundt Archival Library, Dakota State University, Madison, South Dakota.

 

Paper Presented at a Meeting or Conference

17.215–17.216

Omit conference meeting number, include city and state

 

N: Gary Bugh, “Exploring Congressional Interest in Presidential Election Reform” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Boston, MA, November 13–15, 2008).

B: Bugh, Gary. “Exploring Congressional Interest in Presidential Election Reform.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Boston, MA, November 13–15, 2008.

 

N: Mark J. McKenzie, “Entering the Citizens’ Debate on Electoral College Reform: Only the Brightest Need Apply?” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Savannah, GA, November 7–9, 2002), 17, 27.

B: McKenzie, Mark J. “Entering the Citizens’ Debate on Electoral College Reform: Only the Brightest Need Apply?” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Savannah, GA, November 7–9, 2002.

 

Reports, Policy Briefs

See 17.356

 

N: Election Reform Information Project, “What’s Changed, What Hasn’t, and Why: Election Reform since November 2000,” electionline.org, Washington, DC (October 22, 2001), 5, http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/2001AnnualReport.pdf.

B: Election Reform Information Project. “What’s Changed, What Hasn’t, and Why: Election Reform Since November 2000.” Electionline.org. Washington, DC (October 22, 2001). http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/2001AnnualReport.pdf.

 

N: Thomas E. Mann, “An Agenda for Election Reform,” Policy Brief No. 82, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (June 2001), 2, http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2001/06elections_mann.aspx.

B: Mann, Thomas E. “An Agenda for Election Reform.” Policy Brief No. 82. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (June 2001). http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2001/06elections_mann.aspx.

 

N: Thomas H. Neale, “The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress,” CRS Report for Congress RL32612, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (June 30, 2005), 1–2, http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32612_20050630.pdf.

B: Neale, Thomas H. “The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress.” CRS Report for Congress RL32612. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (June 30, 2005). http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32612_20050630.pdf.

 

N: L. Paige Whitaker and Thomas H. Neale, “The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals,” CRS Report for Congress RL30804, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (November 5, 2004), i, 18–24, http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/38002.pdf.

B: Whitaker, L. Paige, and Thomas H. Neale. “The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals.” CRS Report for Congress RL30804. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (November 5, 2004). http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/38002.pdf.

 

Web / Internet: Articles

(See 17.4–17.15, 17.187, 17.198, 17.234–17.237)

Include delivery protocol – http:// or ftp:// (17.9)

Never capitalize http, even if it follows a period (17.10)

Do not use “at” or “available at” (17.12, 17.181, 17.187, 17.356)

Do not use access dates (17.12, 17.187)

No Wikipedia citations

If no author, use corporate author (17.237) (like newspaper & magazine citations, 17.192)

Blogs and emails are not listed in bibliography (17.236)

 

N: Center for Education in Law and Democracy, “Selection of Presidential Electors,” September 13, 2004, http://www.lawanddemocracy.org/pdffiles/amend36blue.pdf.

B: Center for Education in Law and Democracy. “Selection of Presidential Electors.” September 13, 2004. http://www.lawanddemocracy.org/pdffiles/amend36blue.pdf.

 

N: Election Reform Information Project, “What’s Changed, What Hasn’t, and Why: Election Reform since November 2000,” electionline.org, Washington, DC (October 22, 2001), 5, http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/2001AnnualReport.pdf.

B: Election Reform Information Project. “What’s Changed, What Hasn’t, and Why: Election Reform since November 2000.” Electionline.org,Washington, DC, October 22, 2001. http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/2001AnnualReport.pdf.

 

N: Todd Gaziano and Tara Ross, “How to Make Your Vote Not Count,” Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, October 2004, http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/guest/04/gaziano/colorado.html

B: Gaziano, Todd, and Tara Ross. “How to Make Your Vote Not Count.” Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, October 2004. http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/guest/04/gaziano/colorado.html.

 

N: Daniel Seligson, “Electoral College Reform Falls Flat,” Stateline.org, March 28, 2001, http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=14306.

B: Seligson, Daniel. “Electoral College Reform Falls Flat.” Stateline.org, March 28, 2001. http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=14306.

 

Web / Internet: Websites & Resources

(These are not internet articles; also see 17.239)

Include delivery protocol – http:// or ftp:// (17.9)

Never capitalize http, even if it follows a period (17.10)

Do not use “at” or “available at” (17.12, 17.181, 17.187, 17.356)

Do not use access dates (17.187)

If no author, use corporate author (17.237) (Like newspaper & magazine citations 17.192)

 

N: Clark H. Bensen, Polidata, http://www.polidata.org.

B: Bensen, Clark H. Polidata. http://www.polidata.org.

 

N: FairVote, http://www.fairvote.org.

B: FairVote. http://www.fairvote.org.

 

N: Library of Congress, “Bills, Resolutions,” Thomas, http://thomas.loc.gov/home/bills_res.html.

B: Library of Congress. “Bills, Resolutions.” Thomas. http://thomas.loc.gov/home/bills_res.html.

 

N: Dave Leip, “Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections,” http://www.uselectionatlas.org.

B: Leip, Dave. “Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.” http://www.uselectionatlas.org.

 

N: National Archives and Records Administration, “U.S. Electoral College: 2000 Presidential Election,” http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/votes/2000.html.

B: National Archives and Records Administration. “U.S. Electoral College: 2000 Presidential Election.” http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/votes/2000.html.

 

N: National Archives and Records Administration, “U.S. Electoral College: Frequently Asked Questions,” http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/faq.html.

B: National Archives and Records Administration. “U.S. Electoral College: Frequently Asked Questions.” http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/faq.html.

 

Web / Internet: E-mails, Blogs

Blogs and emails are not listed in bibliography (17.236)

 

N: Erick Erickson, “North Carolina Stops Short of Electoral College Reform,” Red State Blog, 2008, http://archive.redstate.com/stories/elections/2008/north_carolina_stops_short_of_electoral_college_reform.

N: J. Gerald Hebert and Jesse Grauman, “Electoral College ‘Reforms’ Deserve a Failing Grade,” Campaign Legal Center Blog, August 17, 2007, http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-157.html

N: John Powell, e-mail to Grapevine mailing list, April 23, 1988, http//www.electroniceditions.net/grapevine/issues/83.txt.

N (if not archived): John Powell, e-mail to Grapevine mailing list, April 23, 1988.